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What is a Balk?

This article answers the question “What is a Balk?” and describes how to recognize when it happens.

What is a Balk?

In the simplest sense, a balk is when the pitcher tries to intentionally deceive the hitter or runner.  It can be a flinch on the mound after the pitcher gets set, a deceptive pick off attempt, or even just as simple as dropping the ball once you become set.  There are many actions that can result in a balk.  When runners are on base and a balk is called, all the runners move up one base.

Since the umpire can’t read the pitcher’s mind, certain movements are considered deceptive and will be called a balk.

Balk or Pick off Move for Left Handed Pitchers

Here is the rule for a pick off move for a lefty pitcher.  If the pitcher does not follow this rule, then it is called a balk.

First, when the pitcher starts his motion and his right foot crosses his left knee, the pitcher has to throw home.

If he tries coming to first he will be called for a balk. Some pitchers will cross over their right knee but not cross their right foot, this can sometimes confuse a base runner, and he can pick over to first base without a balk being called.

  • A pitcher must get to a set position, where he comes to a complete stop after he gets the sign but before he starts his motion home.
  • A pitchers right foot must go in the general direction he is throwing (see diagram).
  • An imaginary 45 degree line goes from the pitching rubber to in between home plate and 1st base.

    What is a balk? What are the rules for a balk? for pitchers and base runners

    The Pitcher's Mound

  • If you are pitching the ball home you must land your right foot on the home plate side of this imaginary line.
  • If you are throwing over to 1st base your right foot must land on the 1st base side of this imaginary line.
  • This rule prevents a pitcher from intending to pitch the ball home, being surprised by a runner stealing 2nd base, and out of desperation flicking the ball over to 1st base while your feet are in position to throw towards home plate.

Balk or Pick off Move for Right Handed Pitchers

  • The pitcher must come set by coming to a complete stop before he throws a pitch home.
  • Once the pitcher is set he can’t move his shoulders or move around unless you step off the back of the rubber.
  • Once you start your motion you must complete it, if you stop a balk will be called.
  • If the ball purposefully or not purposefully falls to the ground when the pitcher gets set, a balk will be called.
  • Any form of deception that isn’t a straight forward pitch or pick off attempt will result in a balk.
  • If you turn and make a pick off attempt to first base and do not throw the baseball without stepping off, a balk will be called.

About the Author: Doug Bernier

Doug Bernier, founder of Pro Baseball Insider.com, debuted in the Major Leagues in 2008 with the Colorado Rockies, and has played professional baseball for 13 years. Most recently, Doug signed with the Minnesota Twins in 2013, where he logged time at every infield position except 1st base in 33 Major League games. Currently Doug is with the Twins' AAA team in Rochester, NY


  1. Good and informative article, except that there is no 45 degree line. Rule 8.05(c) clearly states that a pitcher must step DIRECTLY towards a base to attempt a pickoff move legally. There is not a 45 degree rule. It is just a common misconception.

    • Paul,

      Thanks for looking up the rule. After I saw your post I asked an umpire about that rule. “Stepping directly” towards the first baseman is what they look for but it can still be pretty vague. They still look at an imaginary 45 degree line that help them in determining if the pitcher is stepping towards first base or home. He said this helps the umpires stay consistent with the balk call so it doesn’t vary too much from umpire to umpire.


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