The following are a list of peer-reviewed studies, meta-analyses, expert opinions and other sources used for PBI posts and emails.

At Pro Baseball Insider, we publish tips from MLB players, coaches, trainers and scouts… but there are some topics where experience is not the highest authority.

When touching on topics related to science, physiology, medicine or psychology, we always do our best to include the best information available.

With that said, please be sure to ALWAYS take your own personal concerns to an expert. The information found on this website is only meant to be a discussion of industry trends, NOT MEDICAL ADVICE!!!!!!!!!!

Sources for posts on recovery

1. Basic Recovery Aids: What’s the Evidence?
Current Sports Medicine Reports
May/June 2015 – Volume 14 – Issue 3 – p 227–234
Peterson, Andrew R. MD, MSPH1,2,3; Smoot, M. Kyle MD1,3,4; Erickson, Jacob L. MD1,3,4; Mathiasen, Ross E. MD1,3,4,5; Kregel, Kevin C. PhD6; Hall, Mederic MD1,3,7

2. Effect of Contrast Water Therapy Duration on Recovery of Running Performance
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2012, 7, 130-140 © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc.
Nathan G. Versey, Shona L. Halson, and Brian T. Dawson

Quote – “Contrast water therapy for 6 min assisted acute recovery from high-intensity running; however, CWT duration did not have a dose-response effect on recovery of running performance.”

3. Effectiveness of post-match recovery strategies in rugby players
British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2006
Authors – N D GillC M Beaven, & C Cook


  • Objectives: To examine the effectiveness of four interventions on the rate and magnitude of muscle damage recovery, as measured by creatine kinase (CK).
  • Methods: 23 elite male rugby players were monitored transdermally before, immediately after, 36 hours after, and 84 hours after competitive rugby matches. Players were randomly assigned to complete one of four post-match strategies: contrast water therapy (CWT), compression garment (GAR), low intensity active exercise (ACT), and passive recovery (PAS).
  • Results: Significant increases in CK activity in transdermal exudate were observed as a result of the rugby match (p<0.01). The magnitude of recovery in the PAS intervention was significantly worse than in the ACT, CWT, and GAR interventions at the 36 and 84 hour time points (p<0.05).
  • Conclusions: An enhanced rate and magnitude of recovery was observed in the ACT, CWT, and GAR treatment groups when compared with the PAS group. Low impact exercise immediately post-competition, wearing compression garments, or carrying out contrast water therapy enhanced CK clearance more than passive recovery in young male athletes.

4. Compression garments and recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage: a meta-analysis
British Journal of Sports Medicine2014;48:1340-1346 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092456
Authors – Jessica HillGlyn Howatson, Ken van Someren3, Jonathan Leeder, and Charles Pedlar,

Quote – “The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of compression garments on recovery following damaging exercise. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using studies that evaluated the efficacy of compression garments on measures of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), muscular strength, muscular power and creatine kinase (CK)…. Data were extracted from 12 studies, where variables were measured at baseline and at 24 or 48 or 72 h post exercise… These results indicate that compression garments are effective in enhancing recovery from muscle damage.”

5. Effect of incorporating low intensity exercise into the recovery period after a rugby match
British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2004
Authors – M SuzukiT UmedaS NakajiT Shimoyama1, T MashikoK Sugawara

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